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398 Shakespearean Romance Bibliography

Page history last edited by Yolanda Bigmall 2 years, 5 months ago



Carr, Joan, "Cymbeline and the validity of Myth," Studies in Philology 75 (1978): 316-30


Crumley, J. Clinton, "Questioning History in Cymbeline," Studies in English Literature 41.2 (2001): 297-315


Glazov-Corrigan, Elena, "Speech Acts, Generic Differences, and the Curious Case of Cymbeline," SEL: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 34:2 (1994): 379-99.


Hayles, Nancy K.  "Sexual Disguise in Cymbeline."  Modern Language Quarterly, vol. 41., no. 3, 1980, pp. 231-47. 


Examining Innogen’s adoption of the male role of Fidele, especially her intuitive connection to her brothers, Hayles argues that the disguise amounts to an unconscious way of knowing.  Many figures in the play are in disguise, and thus both signs and the reasoning they prompt are often misleading.  In her passive and androgynous state, Innogen discovers a dream-like intuition that represents a deeper, unconscious sense of the world’s truths and order.  It is at this archetypal level of unconscious (this is not a Freudian concept of the uncsonscious) that Hayles locates the family.  The play suggests that family is a fundamental unit of social being, and thus one that should stand beyond unions arranged for financial or political benefit. (Prof. Leonidas)


Hoeniger, F.D.  “Irony and Romance in Cymbeline.”  Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, vol. 2, no. 2, 1962, pp. 219-228.


Through the process of examining the work of other critics, Hoeniger argues in favor of Shakespeare's usage of irony in Cymbeline. Intentionally referring to those who argue that Shakespeare's use of irony disrupts the unity of the romantic comedy, Hoeniger points out specific examples from the play to claim that the use of irony lends hand to a unique, blended genre of romance and subtle comedic style. In the case of Innogen finding Cloten's beheaded remains, Hoeniger posits that though initially the mythological imagery Shakespeare conjures to describe such a brutal scene is interpreted as humorous, it is justified by Innogen's grief that immediately follows. The juxtaposition of the rawness of the emotions the characters convey with the sometimes macabre irony renders Cymbeline a play that doesn't disregard its alleged genre, but interprets the genre and elevates it. (Marion Jainchill)



Hunt, Maurice.  “The ‘Fittings’ of Cymbeline.” South Central Review, vol. 16, no. 1, 1999, pp. 73-87.


Hunt, Maurice.  “Shakespeare’s Empirical Romance: Cymbeline and Modern Knowledge.” Texas Studies in Language and Literature, vol. 22, no. 3, 1980, pp. 322-42.


Lander, Bonnie.  “Interpreting the Person: Tradition, Conflict, and Cymbeline's Imogen.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 2, 2008. pp. 156-184 .


Lander argues that characters in Shakespeare’s play have a combination of traits from the external world while also remaining autonomous. In Cymbeline, he argues that Imogen finds her identity when these two idea interact. She points out that to the Victorians was “the perfect realization of an ideal of respectable womanhood on which the nation's strength was founded.” She explains how Imogen was relatable to audiences during that time while also being able to have her own independent personal qualities. She states that both of these positions working simultaneously together is what makes Imogen was compelling. (Raeven Steed)


Landry, D.E. "Dreams as History: The Strange Unity of Cymbeline," Shakespeare Quarterly 33:1 (1982), 68-79.



Landry, D. E. “The Strange Unity of CymbelineShakespeare Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 1, 1982, pp. 68-79.

Swander explores the idea that Posthumus is a blameless hero in Shakespeare’s Cymbeline. He uses examples of Posthumus being boastful and implying that Innogen is the most chaste woman ever to say how Pothumus is portraying the role as the “slightly foolish version of the virtuously boastful husband.” Swander argues that Shakespeare made Posthumus the blameless hero in three ways: 1) “by introducing small but revealing alterations into the broadly conventional responses of the " blameless " husband, in this way creating a steady ironic comment on the conventions themselves; 2) by introducing unconventional responses for the stock characters of the story the friend (Philario), the servant, and the wife-these responses establishing standards by which we judge both the hero and the conventional standards; and 3) by transforming the hero at the beginning of the last act.” (Raeven Steed) 



Lawrence, Judiana, "Natural Bonds and Artistic Coherence in the Ending of Cymbeline," Shakespeare Quarterly 35 (1984), 440-60


Lawrence presents a multi-faceted argument in favor of Shakespeare's final act of Cymbeline. Beginning by countering Shaw's dismissal of the fifth act as an unrefined resolution, Lawrence claims instead that Shakespeare resolves so much more than just the reuniting of the royal family. The fifth act of Cymbeline, from Lawrence's perspective, symbolizes a unification of several of the plays tensions.  For instance, regarding the paradox posited in the play that "bondage is freedom", Innogen rebels against her imprisonment earlier in the play, however willfully submits herself to marriage, which is arguably an entirely different type of prison due to how it was constructed in society during Shakespeare's time. Though the family coming together does serve as a way to reel in the separate aspects of the plot, it also represents the entirety of humanity. Shakespeare never intends the revelation of the true identities of the characters to be shocking, as readers are fully aware of who they really are. Instead, Shakespeare pays homage to the romantic genre, as well as blends subtle usage of irony to reinforce its intended comedic aspect. (Marion Jainchill)



Lawrence, William Witherle.  “The Wager in Cymbeline.” PMLA, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1920, pp. 391-431.



Lewis, Cynthia, "'With Simular Proof Enough': Modes of Misperception in Cymbeline," Studies in English Literature 31 (1991), 343-64


Mikalachki, Jodi.  “The Masculine Romance of Roman Britain: Cymbeline and Early Modern Naionalism.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 46, 1995, pp. 301-22.


Skura, Meredith, "Interpreting Posthumus' Dream:Cymbeline," in Representing Shakespeare: New Psychoanalytic Essays, ed. By


Simonds, Peggy Munoz. “The Iconography of Primitivism in Cymbeline." Renaissance Drama, vol. 16, 1985, pp. 5-120


Swander, Homer.  “Cymbeline and the ‘Blameless Hero.’”  English Literary History, vol. 31, no. 3, 1964, pp. 259-70.


Swander argues that Posthumus is one of Shakespeare's greatest heroes due to his characteristics and all of the experiences he went through in Cymbeline. Posthumus demonstrates his emotions and values throughout the play having all of the correct features and attributes a 'Blameless Hero' should obtain. Swander also explains how the description of the mole and room of Imogen was very significant in the story because if not then Posthumus' reaction wouldn't of shown the evidence of how his emotions were in the correct place. A controversial topic is brought upon this journal when Swander calls Posthumus the seductive villain when he write a letter to Imogen to draw her out for her own death. (Gabriel Tincopa)


Taylor, Michael, "The Pastoral Reckoning in Cymbeline," Shakespeare Survey 36 (1983), 97-106


Thorne, William Barry.  “Cymbeline: ‘Lopp'd Branches’ and the Concept of Regeneration.  Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 2, 1969, pp. 143-159.


Thorne discusses the layers of unity with the play Cymbeline, and explains how each plot line is carefully woven into the next, expanding the complexity of the play’s events and characters. It is within this overlapping that Shakespeare is able to convey the humanity of relationships and the bond between people. Thorne states that this plot technique brings about a pattern within the play, showing how events and connections can influence each other in sequential, understandable ways. It is in these patterns that we discover the heart of human connection: “breakdown and reconciliation.” (Rachel Cayon)




Winter’s Tale


Bristol, Michael D. "In Search of the Bear: Spatiotemporal Form and the Heterogeneity of Economies in "The Winter's Tale"" Shakespeare Quarterly 42.2 (1991): 145-67.


Champion, Larry S. "The Perspective of Comedy: Shakespeare's the Winter's Tale." College English 32.4 (1971): 428-47.



Clubb, Louise. "The Tragicomic Bear." Comparative Literature Studies 9 (1972): 17-30.


Clubb argues the importance of Shakespeare’s selection of the bear in Act three of The Winter’s Tale.  She claims it was a strategic decision that, unlike the other possibilities she describes in depth, such as wolves or boars, creates a bridge between the dichotomy of tragedy and comedy, as the attributes of the bear in both stature and behavior place it characteristically within both.  She repeatedly cites pastoral Italian works that previously sought to establish the same tragicomic sense in their use of certain wildlife.  She claims that though it would have been possible to make use of a different animal, Shakespeare’s selection lessened the strain she believed it would have taken to accomplish this while trying to achieve a “Naturally tragicomic” unity for the entire play (Clubb 28).  (Chris Drexler) 




Hunt, Maurice. "'Bearing Hence': Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale." Studies in English Literature, vol. 44, no. 2, 2004, pp. 333-43.


Hunt, Maruice.  “Dismemberment, Corporal Reconstitution, and the Body Politic in Cymbeline.”  Studies in Philology, vol. 99, no. 4, 2002, pp. 404-31. 



Enterline, Lynn. "'You Speak a Language that I Understand Not': The Rhetoric of Animation in The Winter's Tale, Shakespeare Quarterly 48:1 (1997), 17-44.

Enterline  uses structuralism to study the use of speech in The Winter's Tale.  This article begins by discussing Metamorphoses and Rime Sparse to discuss ideas regarding speech, structuralism, and feminism. If you haven't read either of these texts, don't let that dissuade you.  Lynn simply uses them just for comparison before his Shakespeare analysis.  One of the main points Lynn makes is how male speech and female speech interact.  She argues that even though the play marks Hermione’s words as insufficient to tell the truth, she has the power to unhinge her husband (Enterline 27).  Hermione’s ability to affect Leontes through speech comprises the bulk of the second half of this article. 


Erickson, Peter. "Patriarchal Structures in The Winter's Tale." PMLA 97.5 (1982): 819-29.


Erickson explores the topic of Patriarchy through the studies of other critics for The Winter's Tale. He speaks upon the relationships between character in this play and how masculinity gives Leontes the desire to do more than Polixenes. Erickson also speaks about the objectification of women who are referred to as vehicles to pass on the heir to the King. Reverse of gender roles is touched when Paulina surpasses Leontes' rage and speaks freely obeying none even her husband. Tying it all together Erickson writes about Shakespeare focussing on Leontes needing women to live in the conclusion but also that although the women in this play have reversed the gender roles, their place in society will always be important but fixed. (Gabriel Tincopa)


Girard, René. "The Crime and Conversion of Leontes in "The Winter's Tale"" Religion & Literature 22.2/3 (1990): 193-219.


Hardman, C. B. "Theory, Form, and Meaning in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale." The Review of English Studies ns 36.142 (1985): 228-35.


Hardman claims that the structural pattern of the play follows the definition of tragicomedy as both themes are in constant juxtaposition through out the play. The author focuses on Shakespeare's techniques that help articulate the "hinge" or joint between both dramatic forms. Hardman claims that the play doesn't carefully blend tragedy and comedy. The author insists that the transition from tragedy to comedy is obvious as the construction of play is split into two parts. (Yolanda Bigmall)


Jensen, Phebe. "Singing Psalms to Horn-pipes: Festivity, Iconoclasm, and Catholicism in The Winter's Tale." Shakespeare Quarterly 55 (2004): 279-306.


Jensen asserts that The Winter’s Tale, specifically in Act IV in which the puritan is singing during the sheep-shearing festival, promotes an anti-Puritan message from the play, supporting Catholicism. Jensen notes that although the play does not have a religious tone overall, there was a strong debate during the time that Shakespeare lived, associating the sheep-shearing festival with an anti-Puritan position. “Playing” is also an essential piece of Jensen’s argument, who asserts that Leontes would have been against the idolatry that comes with it. (Meredith Gauruder)



Knapp, James A. "Visual and Ethical Truth in The Winter's Tale." Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 55, 2004, pp. 253-78.


Kurland, Stuart. "'We Need No More of Your Advice': Political Realism in The Winter's Tale." SEL, vol. 31, no. 2, 1991, pp. 365-86.


Orgel, Stephen.  "The Poetics of Incomprehensibility." Shakespeare Quarterly 42 (1991): 431-7.


McDonald, Russ. "Poetry and Plot in The Winter's Tale." Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 36, 1985, pp. 315-29.


McDonald explains that poetic language is difficult to read but that the organization of poetry periodically helps make it articulate and meaningful. The author explores the structural unity and form in The Winter's Tale. He argues that the language variation present between the characters creates confusion and uncertainty in the reader's mind. He states that Leontes' language style is rough and consists of a choppy, unpoetic rhythm compared to Hermione and Polixenes. The complexity of his dialect is meant to portray the disorder in his mind. The author supports the theology proposed that Shakespeare's later works show mastery in uniting poetry and drama. He insists that Shakespeare's manipulation of poetry and speech is distinctive and "contributes to the importance of time inhuman affairs". The plot is (Yolanda Bigmall)


Morse, William R. "Metacriticism and Materiality: The Case of Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale." English Literary History 58 (1991): 283-94.


Morse explores the political aspects of The Winter's Tale, particularly how it embodies the court ideology in relation to the new emerging modern discourse during Shakespeare's life. In this exploration, Morse suggests that not only was Shakespeare conscious of the presence of the ideologies in his plays, but the reader can also identify how Shakespeare himself was influenced by such ideologies. Morse also asserts that The Winter's Tale is in itself critical of the court ideology, using the events of the play to display its negative qualities. (Meredith Gauruder)



Mowat, Barbara A. "Rogues, Shepherds, and the Counterfeit Distressed: Texts and Infracontexts of The Winter's Tale 4.3." Shakespeare Studies, vol. 22, 1994, 58-76.


Proudfoot, Richard. "Verbal Reminiscence and the Two-part Structure of The Winter's Tale." Shakespeare Survey 29 (1976): 67-78.


Schwalkwyk, David. "'A Lady's 'Verily' Is as Potent as a Lord's": Women, Word, and Witchcraft in The Winter's Tale." English Literary Renaissance 22 (1992): 242-72.



Ward, David. "Affection, Intention, and Dreams in The Winter's Tale." Modern Language Review, vol. 82, no. 3, 1987, pp. 545-54.


Ward presents a strong case in favor of reestablishing the exact language and punctuation used in the first folio, replacing the modifications that have been widely accepted and implemented in a particularly ambiguous passage of The Winter’s Tale in contemporary publications.  He argues against scholarly assertions that through the use of additional breaks and punctuation, a higher clarity and understanding may be achieved.  Contrariwise, he insists that in doing so these commonly accepted revisions have narrowed the scope of possible interpretation that would more closely fit together with the deeper context of the play.  He explores how the use of precise language such as the intended meanings behind “Affection” and “Intention,” which Ward sees as having important psychological roots, find new, possibly unintended, meanings when the surrounding punctuation is changed.  Ward also cites possible influences that may have caused Shakespeare’s careful selection of these particular words. (Chris Drexler)  





Abrams, Richard. “The Tempest and the Concept of the Machiavellian Playwright.” English Literary Renaissance, vol. 8, no. 1, 1978, pp. 43-66.


Baldo, Jonathan. “Exporting Oblivion in The Tempest.” Modern Language Quarterly, vol. 56, no. 2, 1995, pp. 111-44.


Berger Jr., Harry. “Miraculous Harp: A Reading of Shakespeare’s Tempest.Shakespeare Studies vol. 5, 1967, pp. 153–83.


Borchardt, Frank L. “The Magus as Renaissance Man,” Sixteenth Century Journal, vol. 21, 1990, pp. 57–76.


Corfield, Cosmo. “Why Does Prospero Abjure His 'Rough Magic'?” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 36, no. 1, 1985, pp. 31-48.


Corfield explores the idea of Prospero's "rough magic" in The Tempest, and what exactly it means for Prospero. Corfield acknowledges the division other critics face over the exact word usage in context of Prospero's rejection speech in Act V. While some believe that this is indicative of Prospero's "disgust" against his magic, others argue that the word is meant less strongly; rather, as a way for Prospero to indicate a "provisional abjuration". Corfield attempts to reconcile both interpretations, before ultimately reaching the conclusion that Prospero is simply tired of his magic, as his real power lies in the power he has over other characters. (Alixandrea Tremont)


Frey, Charles.  “The Tempest and the New World.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 30, no. 1, 1979, pp. 29-41.


Frey explains how it has been show that the similarities within Shakespeare’s The Tempest do reflect colonization; Frey believes it to reflect the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia directly. He goes on to state that Shakespeare had relationships with many people who were active in the colony, and has such proof that Shakespeare showed support for the “vaguely defined” morals of the new world: freedom, opportunity, wealth. (Rachel Cayon)


Fuchs, Barbara.  “Contextualizing The Tempest.”  Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 48, no. 1, 1997, pp. 45-62.


In her article, Fuchs compares the colonization of Caliban's island in The Tempest to the colonization going on at the time in Shakespeare's lifetime--not in America, but in places such as Ireland. She goes on to explain some way that the British thought of the Irish, and compares it to how Miranda and Prospero think of and view Caliban. The two are very similar; the British did not think fondly of the Irish, and many of their stereotypical qualities carried over into how Caliban was written. Lastly, Fuchs writes about the importance of reading texts in a political light, and how this way of reading can illuminate a text. (Zachary DiGirolamo)


Johnson, Nora. “Body and Spirit, Stage and Sexuality in The Tempest.” English Literary History, vol. 64, no. 3, 1997, pp. 683-701.


In this article, Johnson explores the concepts of body and spirit and how they appear on stage. In The Tempest, there is a minimal amount of female characters, a couple of them being spirits. She made sure to point out these roles were played by young boys. This is important because she says it helps imply the de-eroticizing of theater. Meaning, the lack of female actor takes away a sense of sexuality within the play itself. Because there are minimal female characters to begin with, the sexual content within the play is limited to references of Caliban's attempted rape of Miranda and Ceres the Goddess referencing the rape of her own daughter. Johnson goes on to explain the importance of the lack of gender associated with Ariel. Because he is a spirit, he is able to move between genders fluidly. (Alanna Levesque)




Mowat, Barbara A. “Prospero's Book.” Shakespeare Quarterly, vol. 52, no. 1, 2001, pp. 1-33.


Pask, Kevin. “Caliban's Masque.” English Literary History, vol. 70, no. 3, 2003, pp. 739-756.


Pesta, Duke.  “Acknowledging Things of Darkness: Postcolonial Criticism of The Tempest.Academic Questions vol. 27, no. 3, 2014, 273-285.


In his article, Pesta states that postcolonial readings of The Tempest portray Prospero as the villain due to his enslavement of Ariel and his treatment of Caliban. He also states that this older reading of the play may be read another way; Sycorax may be read as the true colonizer, and therefore the true villain of the piece (she captured and enslaved Ariel; after all, it was Prospero who freed him from his bonds and chains). However, he notes that he doesn't see Caliban being reclaimed as a true victim, and that no matter what way one reads the text, his actions are still too villainous. (Zachary DiGirolamo)


Skura, Meredith. “Discourse and the Individual: The Case of Colonization in The Tempest.Shakespeare Quarterly, volume 40, number 1, pages 42-69.


Argues that while the “discourse” of English colonialism is important in the play, scholars have been far too quick the play is about the New World and simply legitimizes British colonial expansion and domination. Instead, Skura shows that the play is equally indebted to Shakespeare’s own preoccupation with aging and an individual’s struggle to evade, order and reorient his (seemingly a very male desire) threatening desires. In Skura’s reading all repressive politics, including colonial politics, becomes an externalization of an internal dynamic: we identify others as embodying our most frighteningly disruptive impulses and repress and marry them to the extent that we need and our social norms allow. (Prof Leonidas)


Slights, Jessica. “Rape and the Romanticization of Shakespeare’s Miranda.” SEL, vol. 41, no. 2, 2001, pp. 357–379.


To begin, Slights addresses the lack of criticisms regarding Miranda. While there is a plethora of articles and criticisms about both Prospero and Caliban, the lack of anything for Miranda is alarming because she is a main character in the play. Slights goes on to explain how Miranda is rebellious against her father to pursue a relationship with Ferdinand, but she does not let Ferdinand control her. Slight goes into depth about how each of the male characters views Miranda based on their own backgrounds. (Alanna Levesque)



Tribble, Evelyn B. “'The Dark Backward and Abysm of Time': The Tempest and Memory.” College Literature, vol. 33, no. 1, 2006, pp. 151-168



Sanchez, E. Melissa. “Seduction and Service in The Tempest”. Studies in Philosophy. Volume 105, Number 1,  50-82, 2008.


Sanchez chooses to address feminist issues that arise with the character Miranda. Sanchez pin points certain characters that cause issues to the narratives of dominance, submission and revolt. Characters such as Caliban and Sycorax create this dimension. Sanchez makes a claim that it is the woman, (in this case Miranda) who introduces sexual desires, marriage and courtship. Sanchez includes in her claim that  politics in the “domestic-sphere” cannot be calculated, in other words there is no norm or rules to follow when it comes to lust, desire and fantasy. (Alexa Sullivan)

Shin, Hiewon. Single Parenting, Homeschooling: Prospero, Caliban, Miranda. Project MUSE. Studies in English Literature. Volume 48, Number 2, Pages 373-389


Shin claims that Prospero's parenting and homeschooling to Caliban could’ve caused the attempted rape. Shin suggests that Caliban could’ve potentially been mislead by both Prospero and Miranda. The reader is educated with the knowledge that it was unusual and out of the norm for a female and male to be educated together in the same room.  The reader is also informed that a tutor and pupil relationship could potentially become an intimate one. Shin claims that because Miranda helped educate Caliban, this could’ve lead him into believing there was an intimate relationship brewing. Shin uses other reliable resources to help his claim. By the end of the article, the reader starts to question whether or not Caliban is guilty as well as if Prospero should take some of the blame. (Alexa Sullivan)


Willis, Deborah. "Shakespeare's Tempest and the Discourse of Colonialism," SEL: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900 29:2 (1989), 277-89.


Willis takes aim at some Colonialist readings of The Tempest, which find the play reflects the ambivalence of “colonialist discourse” in that it simultaneously legitimizes rule by deeming an “other” threatening and subverts this dynamic by revealing some complexity in the colonized. Instead, Willis claims that the play’s real “other” is Antonio. In so doing, she asserts that the play’s preoccupation is European power and its need to find otherness not in those natives of distant lands but in the conventional familial and political rivals that perennially threaten a ruler. The play has less to expose about “colonialist discourse” than about the universal techniques that power uses to sustain and reproduce itself. (Prof Leonidas)





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